Background of Conclusion Person Programming


In the 1960s Dartmouth Fundamental programming language [7] was created and applied at Dartmouth University by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. More than time Essential turned a popular language for residence buyers, and company use, it launched quite a few persons to programming as a passion or career. Quite a few of the modern day principles of pc graphics, dynamic objects and item oriented programming were prototyped by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in Sketchpad [13][14]. In the mid 1960s Seymour Papert, a mathematician who experienced been doing work with Piaget in Geneva, arrived to the United States the place he co-founded the MIT Synthetic Intelligence Laboratory with Marvin Minsky. Papert labored with the crew from Bolt, Beranek and Newman, led by Wallace Feurzeig that developed the first model of Symbol [25] in 1967. In the late sixties Alan Kay [2][3][17] utilised the time period ‘personal computer’ and designed a thought prototype, the FLEX Machine, he also envisaged a ‘Dynabook’ equipment, the sketches for this search incredibly related to the laptop computer systems of recent years. The Simula [28] language was developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard and this provided Object-Oriented concepts. Douglas Engelbert’s worked on a project to augment the human intellect, as component of the Increase [8] venture he reveal Hypertext and movie conferencing.


Alan Kay joined the Xerox Palo Alto Investigation Centre (PARC) [17][19] California in 1971. During the seventies the team at PARC led by Dr. Kay designed an built-in programming language and programming atmosphere referred to as Smalltalk [10]. In the early seventies the Alto particular computer was established at the PARC. The Alto finally showcased the world’s to start with What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get (WYSIWYG) editor, a industrial mouse for input, a graphical person interface (GUI), and little bit-mapped screen, and supplied menus and icons, and connected to a neighborhood area network. The Alto offered the basis for Xerox’s STAR 8010 Data Procedure. There was nonetheless a will need to obtain a prevalent use for a particular pc that would raise the demand from customers for it. In 1978, Harvard Business University pupil, Daniel Bricklin, arrived up with the thought for an interactive visible calculator. Bricklin and Bob Frankston then co-invented the computer software plan VisiCalc [1]. VisiCalc was a spreadsheet, and the initially ‘killer’ software for individual personal computers as this application provided a justification for employing individual pcs as a productive tool.


Throughout the 1980s ownership of personalized personal computers turned significantly preferred and a lot of house users programmed making use of Essential. In the early eighties IBM developed the initially own computer system crafted from off the shelf areas (referred to as open architecture) [15]. This provided a command line functioning technique written by Microsoft and the Microsoft Primary programming language. Apple formulated the GUI even more for the Lisa [5] that afterwards turned the Macintosh (Mac). The IBM design Computer system became most common for enterprise applications, whilst the Apple Mac was usually employed for Desktop publishing.


Finish Consumer Programming exploration has ongoing to the current day. Exploration has continued in methods of Visible Programming [9] e.g. Alice [4], Programming by Example [2][21], programming with automated aid [20], and All-natural Language Programming [27]. Squeak and Croquet[6] have produced from the early function in Smalltalk.

Tim Berners-Lee [23] made HyperText Markup Language (HTML), and has been involved with the Globe Vast World wide web Consortium (W3C) [29] in building specifications foundation languages for the Web. This has encouraged the development of the ‘Semantic Web’ [11] which permits both equally individuals and personal computers to research and interact with webpages additional and so encouraged the development of interactive web webpages and communities.


Current, existing and potential study can empower the use of semantic internet technologies, (designed from HTML by Tim Berners-Lee [23] and some others), to permit Finish Consumer Programming. This fusion of investigate and systems is illustrated by Henry Lieberman’s household page [12] which has explanations of both regions of study. Examples of this fusion include things like Protégé [22], Jena [16], TopBraid Composer [24], and OpenCyc [18]. Information and facts about these systems is obtainable in my semantic world-wide-web site – kingdom/amrc/seeds/PeterHale/RDF/RDF.htm. A linked growth is that of world-wide-web 2.. Visual improvement environments centered on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) [26] intention to reproduce on the world wide web, the operation furnished by business office equipment this kind of as Excel (which is frequently made use of as an Conclusion Consumer Programming Natural environment). Details about Ajax and Net 2. is out there in my Ajax/world-wide-web2. website page – isles/amrc/seeds/Ajax/ajax.htm.


1. A Short Record of Spreadsheets – – Determination Aid Technique Methods – by D. J. Power, Editor, DSSResources.COM.

2. Alan Kay – – Enjoy What I Do – Programming by Instance.

3. Alan Kay ETech 2003 presentation – – Lisa Rein’s Tour Of Alan Kay’s Etech 2003 Presentation.

4. Alice v2. – – Discover to System Interactive 3D Graphics.

5. Apple Lisa – – The Initially Reasonably priced GUI – Lisa 1 Jan-83 Jan-84, Lisa 2 Jan-84 Apr-85.

6. Croquet – – a new open source software package platform for developing deeply collaborative multi-consumer on the net applications.

7. Dartmouth Essential – – Wikipedia.

8. The Demo – – Stanford University.

9. Dmoz Open up Listing Task – – Visual Languages – Programming Languages Reference – Visible Languages.

10. The Early History Of Smalltalk by Alan Kay – – 1967-69–The FLEX Equipment, a 1st endeavor at an OOP-centered private computer system – Alan Kay –

11. Fifteen Years of the Web – – World-wide-web Timeline – BBC Technological know-how.

12. Henry Lieberman – – Investigate Scientist – MIT Media Laboratory.

13. Historical past of HCI – – Essential systems, people and thoughts – Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

14. Record of HCI – Sketchpad (1963) – /sld020.htm – Ivan Sutherland – MIT Lab – Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

15. Inventors of the Contemporary Personal computer – -The Record of the IBM Laptop – Worldwide Enterprise Equipment.

16. Jena – [ – First Jena User Conference – Proceedings.

17. Kyoto Prize Laureates 2004 – [ – 2004 Kyoto Prize Laureates – Dr. Alan Curtis Kay (U.S.A., b. 1940) – Computer Scientist, President, Viewpoints Research Institute.

18. OpenCyc – – – General knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine.

19. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) – History – [ – PARC History.

20. The Programmer’s Apprentice – – The ACM Digital Library.

21. Programming by Example – PBE/index.html.

22. Protege – – Protégé Home – Ontology Development Environment.

23. Tim Berners – [ – Tim Berners-Lee.

24. TopBraid – – Semantic Modeling Toolset – Visual modeling environment.

25. What is Logo? – – MIT Logo Foundation, What is Logo.

26. Wikipedia – – Ajax (programming).

27. Wikipedia – – Natural language processing.

28. Simula – – Simula.

29. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – – Leading the Web to Its Full Potential….

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